San Patricio es la fiesta más popular de Irlanda. Lee este texto y responde a las preguntas.


The person who became St. Patrick, the patron saint (santo patrón) of Ireland, was born in Wales about AD 385. His name was Maewyn, and he almost didn't get the job of bishop of Ireland because he didn´t have the required scholarship.

Far from being (lejos de ser) a saint, until he was 16, he considered himself (él mismo) a pagan. At that age, he was sold into slavery by a group of Irish marauders that raided (asaltaron) his village. During his captivity, he became closer (más unido a) to God.

He escaped from slavery after six years and went to Gaul where he studied in the monastery under St. Germain, bishop of Auxerre for a period of twelve years. During his training he became aware that his calling was to convert (iba a convertir) the pagans to Christianity.

His wishes were to return to Ireland, to convert the native pagans to Christianity. But his superiors instead appointed St. Palladius. But two years later, Palladius transferred to Scotland. Patrick, having adopted (habiendo adoptado) that Christian name earlier, was then appointed as second bishop to Ireland.

Patrick was quite successful at winning converts. And this fact upset (molestaba) the Celtic Druids. Patrick was arrested several times, but escaped each time. He traveled throughout (viajó a través de) Ireland, establishing monasteries across the country. He also set up (estableció) schools and churches which would aid him in his conversion of the Irish country to Christianity.

His mission in Ireland lasted for thirty years. After that time, Patrick retired to County. He died on March 17 in AD 461. That day has been commemorated as St. Patrick's Day ever since.

Much Irish folklore surrounds St. Patrick's Day.

Some of this lore (tradición popular) includes the belief that Patrick raised people from the dead. He also is said to have given a sermon from a hilltop that drove all the snakes from Ireland. Of course, no snakes were ever native to Ireland, and some people think this is a metaphor for the conversion of the pagans. Though originally a Catholic holy day, St. Patrick's Day has evolved into more of a secular holiday.

One traditional icon of the day is the shamrock (trébol). And this stems from a more bona fide Irish tale that tells how Patrick used the three-leafed (de tres hojas) shamrock to explain the Trinity (La Trinidad). He used it in his sermons to represent how the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit could all exist as separate elements of the same entity. His followers adopted the custom of wearing a shamrock on his feast day.

The St. Patrick's Day custom came to America in 1737. That was the first year St. Patrick's Day was publicly celebrated in this country, in Boston.

Today, people celebrate the day with parades, wearing of the green, and drinking beer. One reason St. Patrick's Day might have become so popular is that it takes place just a few days before the first day of spring. One might say (se podría decir) it has become the first green of spring.(El primer verde de la primavera)

bishop (obispo), scholarship (preparación académica)
marauders ( maleantes), became aware (se dio cuenta)
calling (llamamiento, nombramiento)
instead (en puesto de) appointed (nombraron)
transferred (trasladado) successful at (tener éxito en algo)
each time (cada vez) lasted (last durar)
ever since (siempre desde entonces)
raised people from the dead (resucitaba a los muertos)
drove all the snakes from Ireland (echó a todas las serpientes de Irlanda)
takes place (tiene lugar)

When was he born?
Was he a slave?
What did he do to convert people to Christianity?
Where was he bishop?
When did he die?
How is celebrated St. Patrick´s Day?

¿Con qué otras palabras dirías las siguientes expresiones?
- he didn´t have the required scholarship
- drove all the snakes from Ireland
- he traveled throughout Ireland, establishing monasteries across the country
- that day has been commemorated as St. Patrick's Day ever since.


History: St. Patrick’s Day
Arthur: HAPPY St. Patrick's Day
Kidskonnect: St. Patrick's Day
English-zone: Saint Patrick's Day Symbols
Emi-premier: Facts on Ireland



I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called - nay we call ourselves and write our name - Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.external image j0119039_small.gif

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew what became of me.

Being the third son of the family and not bred to any trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving father's house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing - viz. that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
external image BD21301_.GIF Contesta las siguientes preguntas de comprensión
Choose the best answer, a), b) or c)

1.Robinson Crusoe had two brothers who
a-he got on with very well.
b-were killed in war.
c-were both older than him.

2.Robinson Crusoe got his name from a mixture of
a-a man from York and a Spaniard.
b-his mother´s family name and his father´s foreign name.
c-his friends.

3.When Crusoe's father learned that he wanted to travel and see the world he
a-tried to talk him out of it.
b-agreed only if he returned to be a lawyer.
c-was happy that his son was going to visit other countries and widen his education.

4-Robinson Crusoe’s father
a-wasn´t healthy and had problems moving around.
b-was relatively young and healthy.
c-thought that he would become sich if Robinson went away to sea.

5-Crusoe’s father thought that it was better to
a-live a famous life by doing something unusual.
b-live a life like a king with lots of money.
c-live a normal life with enough money to live on and be in the middle of society.



Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, 'and what is the use of a book,' thought Alice 'without pictures or conversation?'
So she was considering in her own mind (as well as she could, for the hot day made her feel very sleepy and stupid), whether the pleasure of making a daisy-chain would be worth the trouble of getting up and picking the daisies, when suddenly a White Rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her.external image j0115704_small.gif
There was nothing so very remarkable in that; nor did Alice think it so very much out of the way to hear the Rabbit say to itself, 'Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be late!' (when she thought it over afterwards, it occurred to her that she ought to have wondered at this, but at the time it all seemed quite natural); but when the Rabbit actually took a watch out of its waistcoat-pocket, and looked at it, and then hurried on, Alice started to her feet, for it flashed across her mind that she had never before seen a rabbit with either a waistcoat-pocket, or a watch to take out of it, and burning with curiosity, she ran across the field after it, and fortunately was just in time to see it pop down a large rabbit-hole under the hedge.
In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering how in the world she was to get out again.
The rabbit-hole went straight on like a tunnel for some way, and then dipped suddenly down, so suddenly that Alice had not a moment to think about stopping herself before she found herself falling down a very deep well.
Either the well was very deep, or she fell very slowly, for she had plenty of time as she went down to look about her and to wonder what was going to happen next. First, she tried to look down and make out what she was coming to, but it was too dark to see anything; then she looked at the sides of the well, and noticed that they were filled with cupboards and book-shelves; here and there she saw maps and pictures hung upon pegs. She took down a jar from one of the shelves as she passed; it was labelled 'ORANGE MARMALADE', but to her great disappointment it was empty: she did not like to drop the jar for fear of killing somebody, so managed to put it into one of the cupboards as she fell past it.

1.-What does "peeped into the book" in the first paragraph mean?
-Alice took the book from her sister.
-Alice make silly noises at the book.
-Alice looked at the book quickly.

2.-What did Alice think was strange about the rabbit when it ran by her?
-It had a watch.
-It had pink eyes.
-It spoke.

3.-How did Alice get into the well?
-She was pushed by the rabbit.
-She was pushed by her sister.
-She followed the rabbit.

4.-The cupboards and bookshelves were
-in the tunnel.
-inside the well.
-in the rabbit hole.

5.-When Alice discovered that the jar of marmalade was empty she
-dropped it down the well.
-put it in a cupboard.
-put it on a shelf.


Irene, María, Why don´t you make a few questions about the reading for your mates?

American Inventor, the most brilliant of modern times. His mother managed to awaken the intelligence of the young Edison, who was allergic to the monotony of school. The miracle happened after reading a book she gave entitled School of Natural Philosophy by Richard Green Parker, such was his fascination that she wanted to do for himself all the experiments and test all the theories it contained. Aided by his mother, settled in the basement of his home a small laboratory convinced he was going to be an inventor.

At twelve years, not to mention his passion for the experiments, considered in their power to win real money materializing some of their good ideas. His first initiative was to sell newspapers and sweets on the train made the journey from Port Huron to Detroit. Had broken the Civil War and travelers were eager for news. Edison convinced the railroad telegraph to describe in the bulletin boards of the stations brief headlines about the development of the race, not to mention add to foot the full details appeared in newspapers, those newspapers sold Edison himself on the train and it goes without saying that the hand removed. At the same time, constantly buying journals, books and equipment, and went on to become the baggage car of the convoy in a new laboratory. He learned to telegraph and, after getting a low price and a second-hand printing press, began publishing his own newspaper, the Weekly Herald.

In subsequent years, Edison made a pilgrimage to different cities out working as a telegraph operator in various companies and spending his free time to investigate. Boston built an apparatus to automatically record the votes and presented it to Congress. Politicians believed that the invention was so perfect that there was no alternative but to reject it. That same day, Edison made two decisions. First, that he would never invent anything but, in addition to innovative, practical and profitable. Second, he abandoned his career as a telegraph. He then formed a partnership and went to work.

Perfected the automatic telegraph, invented a device to transmit the oscillations of securities, helped build the first typewriter and gave practical application to your phone with the adoption of the carbon microphone. His name became known, his inventions already reported benefits and Edison was able to buy machinery and hire workers. For hours he did not. He was very demanding with his staff and he liked piecework, so that the results were often positive.

A twenty-nine years old when he bought a large piece of land in the village of Menlo Park, near New York, and built there a new shop and a residence for his family. Edison was married at the end of 1871 to Mary Stilwell, the main feature of the wedding was the job that cost him the godfather to the groom put white gloves for the ceremony. Now he had to support a household and dedicated, harder if possible, to productive work.

Its main virtue was undoubtedly its extraordinary capacity for work. Every detail in the course of his research made him envision the possibility of a new finding. Newly installed in Menlo Park, but was totally focused on a new device for recording sound vibrations. The idea was already ancient and had even managed to record sounds on a wax cylinder, but no one had been playing. Edison worked day and night on the project and finally, in August 1877, gave one of their technicians a strange sketch, saying that contraption out the construction without delay. Finally, Edison switched on the machine. Everyone could hear a song he had sung one of the employees minutes earlier. Edison had just completed one of his greatest inventions, the phonograph. But not all were successes. Many of the investigations initiated by Edison ended in resounding failure. When the tests were unsatisfactory, he experimented with new materials, combined in different ways and keep trying.
external image NSRW_Thomas_Alva_Edison.png


Juan de la Cierva:

Juan de la Cierva y Codorníu (21 September 1895 – 9 December 1936) was a Spanish civil engineer, pilot and aeronuatical engineer. His most famous accomplishment was the invention in 1920 of the Autogiro, a single-rotor type of aircraft that came to be called autogyro in the English language. After four years of experimentation, De la Cierva developed the articulated rotor which resulted in the world's first successful flight of a stable rotary-wing aircraft in 1923 with his C.4 prototype.
De la Cierva was born in Murcia, Spain to a wealthy family. After several successful experiments with aviation as a boy, he eventually earned a civil engineering degree. He moved to England in 1925, where with the support of Scottish industrialist James G. Weir, he established the Cierva Autogiro Company.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, De la Cierva supported the forces of Francisco Franco, helping the rebels to obtain the De Havilland DH-89 'Dragon Rapide' which flew General Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco. His brother was killed by the Republican army in Paracuellos del Jarama.

Juan de la Cierva

external image Juan_de_la_Cierva_y_Codorn%C3%ADu_retrato.jpg



Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. 1398 – February 3, 1468) was a German goldsmith, printer and publisher who introduced modern book printing. His invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of the modern period.[1[[|]]] It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation and the Scientific Revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.[2[[|]]]
Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and the global inventor of the printing press. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system which allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type.
The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, which was the existing method of book production in Europe, and upon woodblock printing, and revolutionized European book-making. Gutenberg's printing technology spread rapidly throughout Europe and later the world.
His major work, the Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible), has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.


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Alexander Graham Bell:
In the session of Canada´s 37th parliament was unaniomusli passet by all four parties of it´s federal gobernment on June
21 , 2002 , to affirm that Alexander Graham Bell , who had lived in both brantfor , ontario and baddeck , Nova Escotia
for extended periods of time , was the inventor of the telephone.
The symbolic motion was a response to the United States 107th Congress earlier resolution of june 11 , 2002 ,wich
recognized the contributions of Antonio Meuci and has been interpreted by some as establishing prioriti for the
invention of the telephone to Meuci , who would later be associated with the globe telephone company . The
house of representatives resolution did not annul or modify any of Bell´s patents for the telephone.
During the 108th congress another resolution , SRes 223 wicth was identical to HRes 269 , was introduced in the United
States Senate . On septenber 10 , 2003 the resolution was referred to the Committee on the Judiciari where it remained
and died , unenacted.
The canadian parlamentary motion and the HRes 269 resolution were both widely reported by various news media at
the time of their proclamations . The HRes 269 resolution is still cited by Meucci advocates as proof that he has been
acknowledged as the firs inventor of the telephone . The resulition has equally been criticized for it´t factual errors ,
inaccuriaciers , biases and distortions .
Alexander Graham Bell :
external image 225px-Alexander_Graham_Bell.jpg
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Alexander Graham Bell c. 1914-1919

London was founded as a communication center by the Romans shortly after they invaded Britain in 43 AD. Londinium, as it was called then, was a little village on the Thames., on the route to the provincial capital in eastern England. The Romans built a bridge across Thames on that route, the first bridge on the Thames near the little village. London had narrow, congested streets lined with tiny shops and houses built of wood and plaster back then. Even the London Bridge, which was considerably more than just a river crossing, had this tendency of narrow, crowded spaces. Therefore, a new stone bridge was built in 1176 to replace the old one. The city of London grew, and so did its population; by 1600 there were 200.000 souls, by the end of the 17th century shot up to 575.000, surpassing Paris as the largest city in Europe. Thus, London became the biggest city in Europe. It also became a cultural center , the center of the English cultural Renaissance, with major figures as Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, William Shakespeare. London was Britain's economic powerhouse and the center of a burgeoning empire.
The city continued to grow and develop to what we see today, always combining the past with the present. In fact, that's what I think of when I think of London: a perfect binding of the past and the present. I think of the Big Ben, the Houses of parliament, 10 Downing Street, the Tower Bridge, the Great Fire, Barbican Arts Center, parks, Nelson's statue in Trafalgar square, the wax museum, Buckingham palace, the double deckers, the black cabs and, last but not the least, rain.
The Houses of Parliament, also called the Palace of Westminster, range along the Thames with Victoria Tower at one end and Big Ben, the famous bell in the Clock Tower, at the other. Westminster Abbey, built in Gothic style, has been the scene of the coronation of sovereigns from William the Conqueror to Elizabeth II. Buckingham Palace was made the official residence of the Sovereign by Queen Victoria. The Royal Guards change at 11.30 every day much to the delight of the tourists. Sir Christopher Wren's baroque masterpiece known as St. Paul's Cathedral was built after the Great Fire in 1066. The Duke of Wellington, Wren himself and Nelson are buried here. Lord Nelson's statue dominates Trafalgar Square, a big square in the center of London named in commemoration of a great English naval victory. People and especially pigeons gather here to see the fountains, the big lions and the statue of the victorious Admiral. The National Gallery, situated on the north side of Trafalgar Square, houses one of the richest collection of paintings, most Renaissance and Impressionist works. Madame Tussaud's exhibits wax models instead, models of famous historical characters, film and sports starts, Royalty statesmen. A more conventional museum is the British Museum, which shows the works of man from prehistoric times to the present day. There are permanent displays of antiquities from Egypt, Western Asia, Greece and Rome. It also includes one of the most famous libraries in the world. But there isn't much excitement in the British Museum, for fun and entertainment one could always go to the Barbican Arts Center, a good example of modern architecture. And after the sunset, there are dozens of theatres just a few minutes walk from Piccadilly Circus (West End theatres), and so is the world famous Covent Garden, home of the Royal Opera. For those who like discos and nightclubs, they can find them near Leicester Square, open till late.
The conclusion remains the same.. London is a perfect binding of the past and the present, a city with so many places to visit that one couldn't find the time to view them all. Samuel Johnson was right when he said that when someone is tired of London he is tired of life.

Saturday, 26th November 2011.

Hello children! Before Autumn is gone read this short story.
If you don´t understand a word link the meaning to it.
Para hacerlo selecciona la palabra cuyo significado no conoces, clicka en el botón "link" que verás arriba. Después te aparecerá un cuadro de diálogo, pincha en donde dice enlace externo. Habre otra pestaña y en ella habre el diccionario después busca la palabra y cuando te aparezca la palabra con el significado, la transcripción fonética y todo, copia la dirección URL del campo que está en la parte más de arriba de la página y pégalo en el cuadro de diálogo del link. Dale al botón de aceptar o link y ya está hecho.
Enjoy the reading.

The Three Apples

The old apple tree stood in the orchard with the other trees, and all summer long it had stretched out its branches wide to catch the rain and the sun to make its apples grow round and ripe. Now it was fall, and on the old apple tree were three great apples as yellow as gold and larger than any other apples in the whole orchard. The apple tree stretched and reached as far as it could, until the branch on which the three gold apples grew hung over the orchard wall. There were the three great apples, waiting for some one to pick them, and as the wind blew through the leaves of the apple tree it seemed to sing:
"Here in the orchard are apples three, Who uses one well shall a treasure see."
And one morning Gerald came down the lane that passed by the orchard wall. He looked longingly at the three gold apples, wishing, wishing that he might have one. Just then the wind sang its song again in the leaves of the apple tree and, plump, down to the ground, right at Gerald's feet, fell one of the three gold apples.
He picked it up and turned it round and round in his hands. How sweet it smelled, and how mellow and juicy it was! Gerald could think of nothing so good to do with such a beautiful ripe apple as to eat it. He put it to his mouth and took a great bite of it, then another bite, and another. Soon there was nothing left of the apple but the core, which Gerald threw away. He smacked his lips and went on his way, but the wind in the apple trees sang, sorrowfully, after him:
"Here in the orchard are apples two, But gone is the treasure that fell for you."
And after a while Hilda came down the lane that passed by the orchard wall. She looked up at the two beautiful gold apples that hung on the branch of the old apple tree, and she listened to the wind as it sang in the branches to her:
"Here in the orchard are apples two,A treasure they hold for a child like you."
Then the wind blew harder and, plump, an apple fell in the lane right in front of Hilda.
She picked it up joyfully. She had never seen so large and so golden an apple. She held it carefully in her clasped hands and thought what a pity it would be to eat it, because then it would be gone.
"I will keep this gold apple always," Hilda said, and she wrapped it up in the clean handkerchief that was in her pocket. Then Hilda went home, and there she laid away in a drawer the gold apple that the old apple tree had given her, closing the drawer tightly. The apple lay inside, in the dark, and all wrapped up, for many days, until it spoiled. And when Hilda next went down the lane and past the orchard, the wind in the apple tree sang to her:
"Only one apple where once there were two, Gone is the treasure I gave to you."
Last of all, Rudolph went down the lane one fine fall morning when the sun was shining warm and the wind was out. There, hanging over the orchard wall, he saw just one great gold apple that seemed to him the most beautiful apple that he had ever seen. As he stood looking up at it, the wind in the apple tree sang to him, and it said:
"Round and gold on the apple tree, A wonderful treasure, hanging, see!"
Then the wind blew harder, and down fell the last gold apple of the three into Rudolph's waiting hands.
He held it a long time and looked at it as Gerald and Hilda had, thinking how good it would be to eat, and how pretty it would be to look at if he were to save it. Then he decided not to do either of these things. He took his jack-knife out of his pocket and cut the gold apple in half, straight across, and exactly in the middle between the blossom and the stem.
Oh, the surprise that waited for Rudolph inside the apple! There was a star, and in each point of the star lay a small black seed. Rudolph carefully took out all the seeds and climbed over the orchard wall, holding them in his hand. The earth in the orchard was still soft, for the frost had not yet come. Rudolph made holes in the earth and in each hole he dropped an apple seed. Then he covered up the seeds and climbed back over the wall to eat his apple, and then go on his way.
But as Rudolph walked down the lane, the orchard wind followed him, singing to him from every tree and bush,
"A planted seed is a treasure won. The work of the apple is now well done."